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Texas Revolution

Andrew Jackson

Texas Revolution: Andrew Jackson was the 7th American President who served in office from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837. One of the important events during his presidency was the Texas Revolution.

Definition and Summary of the Texas Revolution
Summary and definition:
The Texas Revolution, aka the Texas War of Independence, was the military conflict between the government of Mexico, led by General Santa Anna, and Texas colonists. The Texas Revolution began October 2, 1835 and resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Texas after the final battle at Vince's Bridge on April 21, 1836.

The Battle of the Alamo was the most famous battle during the Texas Revolution but the Goliad Massacre was also a most notorious event involving the execution of over 350 Texans who had been forced to surrender to the Mexican army of Santa Anna.

What were the Causes of the Texas Revolution?
In 1821 the Mexicans won their independence from Spain in 1821 and founded the Mexican Republic. Soon after this event immigrants from the United States settled in the northeastern part of the new republic - which was called Texas. Why did the Texas Revolution start? The causes of the rebellion of the Americans leading to the Texas Revolution were:

  • Cultural differences between the Mexicans and the Americans

    • Language - Americans unwilling to speak Spanish

    • Religion - Americans unwilling to accept the Roman Catholic

    • Judicial system - Mexican system 'guilty until proved innocent' as opposed to American system of 'innocent until proved guilty'

    • Slavery - the Mexicans opposed slavery, whereas many Americans had been raised in the slave states of the south

  • Role of the Mexican military to collect taxes

  • The autocracy of Santa Anna and the bureaucracy of the government

  • Changes in the government to a less democratic system

    • The Mexican constitution based on in favor of states’ rights, as opposed to federal control was overturned

  • The Americans retained trading links with the U.S.

  • Many Americans believed that Texas, and other parts of Mexico, should belong to the U.S.

Texas Revolution Battles: The Battle of Gonzales
The Battle of Gonzales was the first military conflict in the Texas Revolution fought on October 2, 1835. The small cannon sparked the conflict. The Mexican authorities had given the American settlers of the town of Gonzales a small cannon to help protect them from frequent raids by Comanche Native Indians. As political unrest increased with rebellions in different states the Mexicans demanded the return of the small cannon. The Texan colonists refused and the Battle of Gonzales commenced that resulted in the death of one Mexican soldier and the start of the Texas Revolution.

Texas Revolution Battles: The Battle of the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was the most famous battle in the Texas Revolution. A small group of 180
Americans, led by William B. Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crocket battled against the force of a 4000 Mexican army led by General Santa Anna.

Texas Revolution Battles: The Battle of Jacinto
The Battle of Jacinto was the final battle of the Texas Revolution fought on April 21, 1836. General Sam Houston led the Texan army in the battle that was fought by the San Jacinto River. Vince's Bridge played a critical role during the Battle of San Jacinto. Vince's Bridge was a wooden bridge constructed by Allen Vince over Sims Bayou near Harrisburg. Acting under the orders of Sam Houston Vince's bridge was destroyed by Texan troops led by Deaf Smith. The
destruction of Vince's bridge prevented the arrival of re-enforcements to General Santa Anna's Mexican Army (who had divided his force) and resulted in the decisive defeat of the Mexican army, effectively ended the Texas Revolution.  The Battle of Jacinto was a rout, as hundreds of Mexican soldiers were killed or captured. General Santa Anna was one of those captured and on May 14, 1836 signed the peace Treaty of Velasco. The demoralized Mexican army, crossed the Rio Grande back into Mexico on June 15, 1836.

Texas Revolution: The Goliad Massacre
A notable and tragic event of the Texas Revolution was the Goliad Massacre. The Goliad Massacre occurred on March 27, 1836, when over 350 Texan prisoners, and their commander James Fannin, were executed by Mexican forces. Most of the Texan prisoners had surrendered at the
Battle of Coleto which was fought on March 19–20, 1836. The Texans had been massively out-numbered by the Mexicans, led by José Urrea, and had run out of ammunition. José Urrea, acting under orders from General Santa Anna, could not accept anything but an unconditional surrender. The terms of surrender are unclear but it is believed that the Texans were promised their lives and deportment to New Orleans if they laid down their arms and surrended to Urrea. The captives were sent to Goliad. Santa Anna demanded they should all be executed. Urrea tried to convince the general to spare them but he failed. The Texans were to be executed under the command of Colonel Nicolás de la Portilla. The executions were called the Goliad Massacre. The actual number of executions is unclear but estimated to be between 350 to 400. The men were shot, their bodies burned and their remains left to the elements. The Goliad Massacre increased the resolve of the men who were bravely fighting in the Texas Revolution. 

Facts about the Texas Revolution: Facts and Timeline for kids
Interesting Texas Revolution Facts and Timeline for kids are detailed below. The history of the Texas Revolution is told in a factual timeline sequence consisting of a series of interesting, short facts providing a simple method of relating the
history of the Texas Revolution and its battles for kids, schools and homework projects.

1829: President Andrew Jackson again offers to purchase Texas, for $1 million. Mexican President Vicente Guerrero declines

April 6, 1830: The Mexican government bans American immigration to Texas

April 1, 1833: Santa Anna is elected president of Mexico

October 2, 1835: Battle of Gonzales - Texan Victory

October 10, 1835: Battle of Goliad - Texan Victory

October 28, 1835: Battle of Concepcion - Texan Victory

November 4–5, 1835:Battle of Lipantitlan - Texan Victory

November 1835: Sam Houston was selected as Commander-in-Chief of the Texas Army

November 26, 1835: Grass Fight - Texan Victory

December 12, 1835: Sam Houston issues a proclamation to recruit a Regular Texas Army

December 17, 1835: Sam Houston is ordered by the Texas Governor Henry Smith to attack Matamoros. Houston orders Jim Bowie to lead the Matamoros expedition

December 30, 1835: Santa Anna and the Mexican Congress declare that that all foreigners taken in arms against the government should be treated as pirates and shot

February 27, 1836: Battle of San Patricio - Mexican Victory

February 23 – March 6, 1836: Battle of the Alamo. Heroic leaders William Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crocket are all killed during the siege - Mexican Victory

February 24, 1836: William B. Travis writes his Victory or Death Letter

March 2, 1836: Battle of Agua Dulce - Mexican Victory

March 2, 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence is signed and the Republic of Texas is declared

March 6, 1836: The bloody siege of the Battle of the Alamo ends. Over 600 Mexicans were killed during the Battle of the Alamo and countless injured

March 14, 1836: Battle of Refugio - Mexican Victory

March 19–20, 1836: Battle of Coleto - Mexican Victory

March 27, 1836: The Goliad Massacre - 350-400 Americans executed

April 21, 1836: Battle of San Jacinto - Texan Victory

April 22, 1836: General Santa Anna is captured

May 14, 1836: The peace treaty of Velasco is signed by the Republic of Texas and General Santa Anna of Mexico.

June 15, 1836: The Mexican army, crosses the Rio Grande back into Mexico

October 22, 1836: Sam Houston is named President of the Republic of Texas

May 14, 1836: The peace treaty of Velasco are signed by the Republic of Texas and General Santa Anna of Mexico.

June 15, 1836: The demoralized Mexican army, cross the Rio Grande back into Mexico

December 29, 1845: Texas becomes part of the United States - refer to Texas Annexation

The Texas Revolution for kids: The Texas Annexation Issue
Following the Texas Revolution and their declaration of independence from the Republic of Mexico the vast majority of Texas citizens favored
Texas Annexation by the United States. However, this suggestion received significant opposition by the leaders of both Important American political parties (the Democratic party and the Whig Party). The US politicians strenuously objected to incorporating Texas, which was a vast slave owning region, into the United States due to the volatile political climate and the bitter question of slavery that divided the north and the south. In early 1845 John O’Sullivan initiates the phrase 'Manifest Destiny' and on December 29, 1845 at last became part of the United States.

US American History
1829-1841: Jacksonian Era

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