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Facts about the War of 1812

James Madison

Facts about the War of 1812: James Madison was the 4th American President who served in office from March 4, 1809 to March 4, 1817. One of the Important events during his presidency was the War of 1812.

Definition and Summary of the Facts about the War of 1812

Summary and definition: The War of 1812 was an armed conflict between the United States of America and Great Britain. It started in 1812 (hence the name) and ended in 1814 - it is also known as the 'Second War for Independence'.

War was declared by President James Madison on June 18, 1812 and lasted for 2 years and 8 months and resulted in a Military stalemate. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814.

Cause of the War of 1812
The cause of the War of 1812 were the British attempts to restrict U.S. trade during the Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) and the British Navy’s Impressment, or kidnapping, of American seamen who were used as forced labor on the British men-of-war ships.

Facts about the War of 1812 for kids: The 1807 Embargo Act and the Non Intercourse Act of 1809
Congress had passed the 1807 Embargo Act and the Non Intercourse Act of 1809 in an effort to force the British and French to allow the US free trade and commerce during the time France and Britain were engaged in the Napoleonic Wars

Facts about the War of 1812 for kids: The Reasons for the War of 1812
The reasons for the War of 1812 and the grounds for complaint against the British and their allies were given by President James Madison as follows:

  • The British had Impressed  American seamen

  • The British had disturbed US trade and commerce by stationing warships off principal ports

  • The British had refused to permit trade between the United States and Europe

  • The British had instigated unrest with the western Native American Indians and encouraged them to attack American settlers

  • Britain had behaved as though they were at war with the United States although none had been declared

Facts about the War of 1812: The Invasion of Canada
In June 1812 the United States declared war on Britain and their military forces invaded Canada. The US believed that the Canadians would welcome the American soldiers as their liberators and together they would overthrow the British. But this premise was totally misguided. Many US citizens had been loyalists during the American Revolutionary War and immigrated to Canada to remain under British rule.

Facts about the War of 1812 for kids: The British and the Chesapeake
During the War of 1812 battles raged on the Canadian border but the British also tried to capture New Orleans and the cities on Chesapeake Bay. Washington DC was burned by the British towards the end of the War of 1812.

Facts about the War of 1812: Result of the War of 1812 - Stalemate
The United States made no gains of territory in the War of 1812 but its ability to engage in warfare with Great Britain resulted in the people of America to think of itself as a unified and strong nation. Americans no longer looked to the mighty powers of France or to England as models to be followed. They had created their own role model - the United States of America and this encouraged their belief in the Manifest Destiny of the US. The realization of their power and independence led to the War of 1812 to become known as the 'Second War of Independence'.

Facts about the War of 1812 for kids
Interesting facts about the War of 1812 are as follows:

The problems between the US, France and Britain, began at the start of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803. The two mighty nations were 'throwing their weight around' and treating the new US nation with no respect.

The goal of Embargo Act of 1807 was to stop France and Britain restricting American Trade. It failed and damaged US commerce and nearly led to New England ceding from the Union

The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 succeed in improving US trade but failed to establish good relations with the British

The British attacked US and Impressed American seamen. The USS Chesapeake was fired on by the British HMS Leopard causing an international incident in 1807

The Battle of Tippecanoe (November 1811), is considered the first battle of the War of 1812, and was blamed on the interference of the British in Canada who had secretly given aid to Tecumseh.

America declared war on Great Britain on June 18, 1812, encouraged by the words of the 'war-hawks'. The War of 1812 lasted for 2 years and 8 months and involved the invasion of Canada.

Some Americans were opposed to the War of 1812 and riots broke out in Baltimore in protest against the conflict

The American plan of campaign in the War of 1812 was the invasion of Canada. General Hull invaded Canada from Detroit. Another US army which was to cross the Niagara River. The armies would join a third army from New York

The objective of the campaign was that the 3 armies would capture Montreal and Quebec and then the rest of Canada. The British mounted operations on the Canadian frontier but also tried to capture New Orleans and the cities on Chesapeake Bay.

General Hull surrendered at Detroit and the British gained control of the upper lakes

In the winter of 1812-13 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of warships and defeated the British on Lake Erie.

General Harrison occupied Detroit and then crossed into Canada defeating a British army on the banks of the river Thames

In April, 1813 U.S. troops capture and burn the city of York (present-day Toronto)

Captain Perry defeated the British at the Battle of Lake Erie in September 1813

In July, 1814, the US forces along the Niagara River, under General Jacob Brown won victories at the Battles of Chippawa and Lundy's Lane

Between August 24-25, 1814 the British forces undertake the Burning of Washington DC in retaliation for the burning of York (Toronto). The defeat closed the British operations on the Chesapeake

The Battle of Baltimore took place in September 1814 at Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangled Banner.

The Federalists who opposed the War of 1812 held a series of secret meetings at the Hartford Convention

In January, 1815 General Andrew Jackson defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans - General Jackson did not learn of the treaty until after the Battle of New Orleans

What treaty ended the war of 1812? In February, 1815 the Peace Treaty of Ghent was ratified and President James Madison declared the War of 1812 over.

US American History
1801-1828: Evolution Era

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