That freed African-Americans were not citizens and had no right to sue in a federal court. In addition, the ruling of the Dred Scott Decision found that Congress could not prohibit slavery from spreading into the western territories. This decision invalidated the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had placed restrictions on slavery in certain U.S. territories.
Dred Scott for kids: The Origin of the Name
The Owners of Dred Scott
Dred Scott for kids: Moved from state to state
Slavery was illegal in some states and territories
Dred Scott sues for Freedom
Dred Scott for kids: The Hiring-out System
Dred Scott Decision for kids: Dred Scott attempts to buy his freedom
Dred Scott Decision for kids: Filing Suit For His Freedom
Dred Scott Decision for kids: Timeline of Dred Scott Court Cases
April 6, 1846: Harriet and Dred Harriet Scott file petitions in the St. Louis County Circuit Court, Missouri in Scott v. Emerson
June 30, 1847: Mrs. Emerson wins the case. The suit was dismissed on a technicality, Dred Scott was unable to prove he was owned by Mrs. Emerson
January 12, 1850 Re-trial: Dred Scott is granted his freedom. Eliza Irene Emerson files an appeal with the Missouri Supreme Court
March 22, 1852: The Missouri Supreme Court reverse the previous ruling and the Scotts are returned to slavery
November 2, 1853: Dred Scott sues John Sanford and appeals to the United States Circuit Court in Missouri, which upholds the Missouri Supreme Courtís decision (Scott v. Sanford)
May 15, 1854: The case of Dred Scott comes to trial (Scott v. Sanford) verdict in favor of John Sanford is appealed to the United States Supreme Court
February 11, 1856: First argument before the US Supreme Court
December 15, 1856: Second argument before the US Supreme Court
March 6, 1857: The US Supreme Court rules that slaves were property and had no rights, that freed African-Americans were not citizens and had no right to sue in a federal court and that Congress could not prohibit slavery from spreading into the western territories.
Dred Scott Decision: Court Case Facts
Dred Scott Decision: The Supreme Court Ruling
The decision of the United States Supreme Court, delivered by Chief Justice Roger Taney, put an end to all hope of compromise on the issue of slavery. Dred Scott had been born a slave and the majority of the Supreme Court judges pronounced that a person, once a slave, could never become a citizen of the United States nor bring suit in the United States courts. They also declared that the Missouri Compromise was unlawful and that the owners of slaves had a clear right to carry their property, including slaves, into the territories, and that Congress could not stop them.
Significance of the Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott Decision: Biography and Life Timeline and Facts for kids
1795: Sam Scott was born an African-American slave, in Southampton County, Virginia (a slave state). His owner was Peter Blow and Sam is brought up with the sons of Peter Blow, the Blow family move from Virginia to Alabama and then on to Missouri
1820: Peter Blow moves to Missouri, a slave state
1832: Peter Blow dies and Dred Scott is sold to Dr. John Emerson, an army surgeon and later taken to live at Fort Armstrong, Illinois (a free state)
1836: Dr. John Emerson moves from Illinois to Fort Snelling in the slave-free territory of Wisconsin, taking his slaves with him.
1836: Sam's brother dies and Sam chooses to take his brother's name Dred in remembrance
1836: Dred marries Harriet Robinson, a slave owned by another army doctor, at Fort Snelling
1837: Dr. Emerson is receives orders to move to Jefferson Barracks Military Post, St. Louis, Missouri. He leaves Harriet and Dred Scott at Fort Snelling where they are temporarily leased to a hirer under the 'Hiring-out System'
1837: Dr. Emerson is reassigned to Fort Jesup in Louisiana (a free state)
1838: February 1837 - Dr. John Emerson marries Eliza Irene Sanford and sends for his slaves to join them in Louisiana
1838: En route to Louisiana, Dred's first daughter Eliza was born on a steamboat on the Mississippi River between the Iowa Territory and Illinois. Eliza was therefore technically born as a free person under both federal and state laws as she was born in free territory.
1838: At the end of the year the Army re-assigns Dr. Emerson back to Fort Snelling in the territory of Wisconsin and, once again, everyone moves
1840: Dr. Emerson serves in the Seminole War and Mrs. Eliza Irene Emerson returns, with the slaves, to St. Louis, Missouri, where the Scotts are again leased to hirers
1842: The birth of Dred's second daughter, Lizzie
1842: Dr. Emerson leaves the army
1843: Dr. John Emerson dies and his widow, Eliza Irene Emerson inherits his slaves. Dred Scott attempts to purchase his freedom from Mrs. Emerson, but she refuses his request and continues to lease out the Scotts
1846: He again attempts to buy his freedom and again Mrs. Emerson refuses his request. With the help of the Abolitionist Movement, he resorts to the legal route and files for the freedom of himself and his family
1846: Dred and Harriet Scott file petitions in the St. Louis County Circuit Court, Missouri in Scott v. Emerson
1847: The Scotts lose their first trial on June 30, 1847. In the case, Scott v. Emerson, the defendant, Eliza Irene Emerson wins. But the presiding judge, Alexander Hamilton, provides Dred Scott with a retrial.
1850: Dred Scott wins his second trial on January 12, 1850. As a result, Eliza Irene Emerson files an appeal with the Missouri Supreme Court.
1850: Eliza Irene Emerson remarries. The name of new husband was Calvin C. Chaffee, an abolitionist, who shortly after their marriage was elected to the U.S. Congress first as a member of the Know Nothing party and was re-elected to Congress as a Republican in 1856
1850: Eliza Irene Emerson Chaffee transfers ownership of the Scotts to her brother, John F. A. Sanford
1852: The Missouri Supreme Court reversed the previous ruling of the lower court which Dred Scott had won and on March 22, 1852 the Scotts are returned to slavery
1853: Dred Scott sues John Sanford for his freedom in a federal court
1854: The jury found in favor of John Sanford and Dred Scott appeals to United States Supreme Court
1857: March 6, 1857 - The United States Supreme Court ruling was handed down on March 6, 1857. Chief Justice Roger Taney gave the opinion of the court declaring that Dred Scott was a slave. The decision implied that a slave was his masterís property even in free states.
1857: Dred Scott and his family are purchased by the family of Peter Blow, the original owner of Dred Scott. The case made headlines throughout the nation
1857: On May 26, 1857 Henry Taylor Blow granted Dred Scott and his family their freedom.
1857: Dred obtained work as a porter in Barnumís Hotel, St. Louis, Missouri
1858: He died of tuberculosis on September 17, 1858. His wife, Harriet, died 18 years later on June 17, 1876
1858: The Supreme court's decision, and its impact on enslavement, is a point of focus during the Lincoln-Douglas debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln receives enough support to win the presidential election
Dred Scott Decision - Racial Discrimination and Segregation
Black History for kids: Important People and Events
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