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Relief, Recovery and Reform

Franklin D Roosevelt

Relief, Recovery and Reform: Franklin D Roosevelt was the 32nd American President who served in office from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945. One of the important events during his presidency was the Relief, Recovery and Reform programs.

Definition and Summary of the Relief, Recovery and Reform
Summary and definition:
The Relief, Recovery and Reform programs, known as the 'Three R's', were introduced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression to address the problems of mass unemployment and the economic crisis.

FDR's Three R's - Relief, Recovery and Reform - required either immediate, temporary or permanent actions and reforms and were collectively known as FDR's New Deal. The many Relief, Recovery and Reform programs were initiated by a series of laws that were passed between 1933 and 1938. The initiatives were called "Alphabet Soup Agencies" as they were referred to by their acronyms. FDR's Relief, Recovery and Reform programs focused on emergency relief programs, regulating the banks and the stock market, providing debt relief, managing farms, initiating industrial recovery and introducing public works construction projects.

What is the difference between Relief, Recovery and Reform? The difference between Relief, Recovery and Reform is as follows:

  • RELIEF: Giving direct aid to reduce the suffering of the poor and the unemployed

  • RECOVERY: Recovery of the economy. Creating jobs and helping businesses grow by restarting the flow of consumer demand

  • REFORM: Reform of the financial system to ease the economic crisis and introducing permanent programs to avoid another depression and insuring against future economic disasters

What agencies were responsible for Relief, Recovery and Reform? Examples of the agencies for Relief, Recovery and Reform are as follows:

  • RELIEF: Civil Works Administration (Relief), Farm Security Administration (Relief), Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (Relief) and
    National Youth Administration (Relief)

  • REFORM: Rural Electrification Administration (Reform), Securities And Exchange Commission (Reform), Social Security Administration (Reform), Indian Reorganization Act (Reform), Tennessee Valley Authority (Reform), Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (Reform) and the
    National Labor Relations Act (Reform)

  • RECOVERY: National Recovery Administration (Recovery), Agricultural Adjustment Act (Recovery), Federal Housing Administration (Recovery), Public Works Administration (Relief/Recovery)

Facts about Relief, Recovery and Reform
The following fact sheet contains interesting facts and information on Relief, Recovery and Reform.

Emergency Banking Relief Act - To regulate the Banking system

Reforestation Relief Act - Established the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and work for 250,000 men

Federal Emergency Relief Act - The FERA established grants for relief projects

Agricultural Adjustment Act - The AAA provided relief to farmers

Tennessee Valley Authority - The TVA provided aid for the economic development in the Tennessee Valley

Federal Securities Act established the SEC to regulate trading on Wall Street

National Employment System Act was passed

Home Owners Refinancing Act providing loans for some 1 million mortgages.

The Banking Act of 1933 (aka the Glass–Steagall Act) established banking reforms and the FDIC

The Farm Credit Act of 1933 established the Farm Credit System (FCS)

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) established the PWA and the NRA

The Public Works Administration (PWA) to supervise the construction of public works

The National Recovery Administration (NRA) to stimulate competition and establish fair trade

The Farm Security Administration (FSA) was created in 1937 (Resettlement Administration in 1935) to aid sharecroppers.

The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) was created in 1934 to stimulate the building industry by providing small loans for home construction. 

The Indian Removal Act of 1934 (called the "Indian New Deal, reversed the forced-assimilation policies

The National Labor Relations Act NLRA (also called the Wagner Act) of 1935 created the National Labor Relations Board to protect the rights or organized labor

National Youth Administration (NYA) was created under the Emergency Relief Act of 1935, the NYA provided more than 4.5 million jobs for young people.

Works Progress Administration (WPA) was established under the $4.8 billion Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935

Rural Electrification Administration (REA) supplying electricity to rural communities

Social Security Administration (SSA) administering a national pension fund an unemployment insurance system, and public assistance for dependent mothers & the physically disabled


Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA) established a minimum wage and maximum working hours


US American History
1929-1945: Depression & WW2

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