The Adams Onis Treaty:
John Quincy Adams and Don Luis de Onís
Adams Onis Treaty is named after the men who negotiated
the agreement: John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of
the United States, and Don Luis de Onís (1762–1827), the
minister in America.
Adams Onis Treaty
The following fact sheet contains interesting facts and information
on Adams Onis Treaty.
The Adams Onis Treaty for kids: Background History
The colonies of East and West Florida had remained loyal to the
British during the Revolutionary War for American
independence, but by the 1783 Treaty of Paris the
Florida colonies returned to Spanish control.
lands belonged to Spain and they became a refuge for
runaway slaves, fugitive Native American Indians,
smugglers, and criminals of all kinds. Once in Florida,
fugitives were generally safe and many joined the
Seminole Indian tribe.
Some Americans immigrants also moved into West Florida.
In 1810, the American settlers in West Florida rebelled,
declaring independence from Spain.
The Adams Onis Treaty for kids: Negotiations begin in 1815
The US Government used the rebellion in West Florida to make a claim
on the lands. The claim was based on the contention that part of
West Florida, from the Mississippi to the Perdido rivers, was part
of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
Negotiations between the U.S. and Spain for the Florida lands began
in 1815. The Spanish minister Don Luis de Onís and James Monroe, who
was then Secretary of State, led the negotiations. The Spanish
suspected the Americans of supporting the rebellion of the West
Florida settlers and the talks failed.
Adams Onis Treaty
General Jackson's 1818 Florida Raid
The situation in Florida erupted again in 1818.
General Andrew Jackson chased some fleeing Native Indians over the
boundary. The fugitives sought refuge with the Seminoles in the
Spanish forts at Pensacola and St. Marks. The Seminoles and the
escaped slaves were seen as a threat to Georgia. General Jackson was
obliged to take the forts as well as the fugitives. His action was
well received by the American public, and therefore received
approval from the politicians. Americans sympathized with the
Spanish colonists in their desire for independence.
Adams Onis Treaty
John Quincy Adams
The raid on Florida by General Jackson gave the US
Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, the opportunity to open
discussions again with the Spanish on behalf of the Monroe
administration. He took an aggressive stance demanding that Spain
either controlled the inhabitants of Florida or cede it to the
Reason for the
Adams Onis Treaty for kids: Why did Spain sell Florida?
Why did Spain agree to sell Florida? There were a
number of reasons:
Spain was unwilling to
make further investments in Florida
Many other Spanish
colonies were rebelling against Spain
Spain was forced to
negotiate, as it was losing its hold on its empire in the
Americas - Spanish power had weakened in the New World
There were also threats in
Europe - more rebellions had led to Emperor Francis I of
Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and Tsar
Alexander I of Russia signing a treaty on 26 September, 1815 and
forming a union called the Holy Alliance
There was also a threat
from Great Britain who, in order to increase trade, had proposed
that the U.S. and Great Britain should join in a declaration
that the Spanish colonies were independent states
There was a distinct
possibility that Spain would lose Florida without any
What were the aim of the Adams Onis Treaty?
The aim of the Adams Onis Treaty was :
What were the Terms of the Adams Onis Treaty?
The terms of the Adams Onis Treaty were as follows:
Florida was sold to
the U.S. for $5,000,000
It set out a boundary
between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).
The U. S. ceded to
Spain its claims to Texas west of the Sabine River
Spain also retained
possession of California and New Mexico
Spain relinquished its
claims to Oregon north of the 42 degrees parallel (the
northern border of California)
The Significance of the Adams Onis Treaty: How did the Adams Onis
Treaty promote Nationalism?
What was the significance of the Adams Onis Treaty and how did the
Adams Onis Treaty promote Nationalism? The Adams Onis Treaty:
Settled disputes between
the United States and Spain for territorial rights within the
New World which included several U.S. states
The treaty created a more
The events surrounding the
Adams Onis Treaty emphasized the intense dislike of American
citizens to Europeans interfering with their affairs and
encroaching on their lands. "America for Americans" was the