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President Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover

President Herbert Hoover: Short biography of President Herbert Hoover and the key events during his presidency.

Life of President Herbert Hoover Fast Fact File
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), nicknamed the "Great Humanitarian", was the 31st American President and served in office from 1929-1933. The Presidency of Herbert Hoover spanned the period in United States history that encompasses the events of the Depression & WW2 era. It was the era of the Roaring Twenties when Prohibition Gangsters such as Al Capone, Speakeasies and the Chicago Mafia were in the news.

The infamous St. Valentine's Day Massacre occurred and Eliot Ness and "The Untouchables" fought against the organized crime wave. President Herbert Hoover represented the Republican political party which influenced the domestic and foreign policies of his presidency.

The major accomplishments and the famous, main events that occurred during the time that Herbert Hoover was president included the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Start of the Great Depression with the Dust bowl, the soup kitchens and the 1932  Bonus Army March. Herbert Hoover died of internal hemorrhaging on October 20, 1964, aged 90. The next president was Franklin Roosevelt.  

Birthday: August 10, 1874

Place of Birth: California

Political Party: Republican 

Nickname: Great Humanitarian

Number: 31st President

Vice President: Charles Curtis

Age at Inauguration: 54

Height: 5 feet 11 inches

Weight: 187 pounds

First Lady: Lou Hoover

Religion: Quaker

Date of Death: October 20, 1964

Date of Herbert Hoover Presidency: March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933

The Nickname of Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer or "Herbie"
The nickname of President Herbert Hoover provides an insight into how the man was viewed by the American public during his presidency. "The Great Engineer" was given as his nickname in reference to his early career as a civil engineer and reflected his flood control work when the Mississippi River burst its banks in 1927. However, the Great Depression consumed the nation within months of his assuming the presidency and Herbert Hoover was blamed. The period began to be referred to as the "Hoover Depression" and his close friends who called him "Herbie" became fewer and fewer. Millions were unemployed and the insides of their empty trouser pockets were called "Hoover handkerchiefs". Poverty stricken, homeless men padded their clothes with newspapers that were called "Hoover blankets." Families were made homeless and no option but to live in shanty towns called "Hoovervilles" and this is the nickname that is most closely associated with Herbert Hoover.

Character and Personality Type of Herbert Hoover
The character traits of President Herbert Hoover can be described as diligent, dull, aloof, independent and confident. It has been speculated that the Myers-Briggs personality type for Herbert Hoover is an ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judgment). A reserved, well-regulated and serious character and a strong traditionalist. Herbert Hoover Personality type: logical, organized, sensible, thorough and dependable.

Accomplishments of Herbert Hoover and the Famous Events during his Presidency
The accomplishments of Herbert Hoover and the most famous events during his presidency are provided in an interesting, short summary format detailed below.

The Roaring Twenties
Summary of the Roaring Twenties: Herbert Hoover became president towards the end of the Roaring Twenties, a period of great change in America with the new Inventions in the 1920's and the great Economic Boom of the 1920's.

Prohibition Gangsters
It was also the era of Prohibition which led to the rise of the Prohibition Gangsters, mobsters and 'bootleggers' who profited from the illegal sale of liquor during the Prohibition Era (1920 to 1933).

Eliot Ness and "The Untouchables"
Summary of Eliot Ness and "The Untouchables": Eliot Ness and "The Untouchables" were tasked with combating the activities of Al Capone and his crime syndicate, the Chicago Mafia. Eliot Ness was the Government Agent (G-Man) who led the group of 11 law enforcement agents, nicknamed the "Untouchables" because they could not be bribed.

The Long Bull Market
Summary of the Long Bull Market: The Long Bull Market of the 1920s saw share prices on the stock market soar as the Stock Market brokers encouraged the practice of buying stocks "on margin", meaning buying stocks with loaned money.

The 1929 Wall Street Crash
Summary of the Wall Street Crash: The economic boom in the 1920s led to high consumerism, easy credit schemes and increased debt. The good times came to an abrupt end with the
1929 Wall Street Crash. Stockbrokers began to make large-scale margin calls, demanding that investors repaid their loans immediately, panic started and the stock market went into free fall. on Tuesday, October 29, 1929 stock prices completely collapsed and $10-$15 billion was lost in just one day. The Wall Street Crash resulted in the closure of banks, bankruptcies, evictions, suicides, wage cuts and mass unemployment that led to the Great Depression.

The Great Depression
Summary of the Great Depression: The
Great Depression (1929 - 1941) brought homelessness, hunger, debt, despair and dejection to the American people. Herbert Hoover was the incumbent president and on the receiving end of much of the blame. The Great Depression began with the 1929 Wall Street Crash and did not end until the start of WW2. When the Great Depression hit, President Herbert Hoover cited constitutional restraint as a reason for not allowing more forceful intervention by the Federal government. Instead, Herbert Hoover appealed to the private sector to come to the aid of the people.

The 1930 Hawley Smoot Tariff
Summary of the Hawley Smoot Tariff: The
Hawley Smoot Tariff was signed into law on June 17, 1930 by Herbert Hoover, just after the start of the Great Depression, to significantly raise to increase tax rates on imported (foreign) goods. The Hawley Smoot Tariff seriously backfired as furious European countries imposed a tax on American goods making them too expensive to buy in Europe, contributing to the economic crisis of the Great Depression.

The Social Effects of the Great Depression
Summary of the Social Effects of the Great Depression: The Social Effects of the Great Depression transformed American society during the Herbert Hoover administration and the quality of life plummeted as jobless people were forced to live in poverty with poor living conditions, little education and poor health.

Shantytowns and Hoovervilles
Summary of the Shantytowns and Hoovervilles:
Shantytowns and Hoovervilles were the names given makeshift camps set up by the homeless during the Great Depression. By 1932, nearly two million American people were homeless and forced to live in makeshift shacks, constructed from unwanted materials and lacking basic amenities such as clean drinking water and adequate sanitation.

Soup Kitchens
Summary of the Soup Kitchens: Soup Kitchens, run by charities, sprang up in every major town and city in America serving free meals to hungry men, women and children. There were few welfare programs to help the unemployed, starving and destitute people and as unemployed soared to over 25% Soup Kitchens sprang up in every major town and city in America.

The Bonus Army March
Summary of the Bonus Army March: The
Bonus Army March was made in the summer of 1932 when over 40,000 World War 1 veterans marched to Washington to lobby Congress to pass legislation authorizing the early payment of veterans bonuses. The senate failed to agree to the payment and the Bonus Army were disbanded by the heavy handed treatment of the US Army under Douglas MacArthur.

The Dust Bowl
Summary of the Dust Bowl: The Dust Bowl was caused by a series of devastating droughts in the 1930s that resulted in Dust Storms and 'Black Blizzards' that ripped up the topsoil sweeping thousands of tons of dirt across America and destroying 100 million acres of farming land.

The Hollywood in the 1920's
Summary of the Golden Age of Hollywood: People sought to escape from the misery of the Great Depression through the movies. Hollywood in the 1920s saw the end of silent movies and the introduction of the 'talkies' in 1927 by Warner Brothers when Al Jolson starred in
First talking movie - The Jazz Singer. As the effects of the Great Depression increased hundreds of 'picture palaces' closed as ticket sales dropped dramatically.

The Hays Code
Summary of the Hays Code: In 1930 the Hays Code and Censorship
of the movies was introduced banning the use of profanity, nudity, immorality and the role of the "vamp" in the Hollywood movies of the 1920s.

The 1932 Lindbergh Kidnapping
Summary of the Lindbergh Kidnapping: Another notable event during the presidency of Herbert Hoover was the Lindbergh Kidnapping sparked a nationwide search following the abduction of the 20-month-old son of the famous aviator Charles Lindberg on March 1, 1932. Bruno Richard Hauptmann was sentenced to death for the kidnapping and murder of the child was Bruno Richard Hauptmann.
     

The Hoover Dam
Summary of the Hoover Dam: The
Hoover Dam was built during the Great Depression. Construction work began on April 20, 1931 under the instructions of Herbert Hoover and was completed on March 11, 1936 during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. President Hoover was blamed for many of the disastrous effects of the Great Depression and the dam was immediately referred to as the 'Boulder Dam'. It was not until 1947 that it was renamed the Hoover Dam.

US American History
1929-1945: Depression & WW2

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