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New Innovations

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New Innovations: Scientific advances were made in space exploration, weaponry, electronics, computers and medicine during the Cold War Era.

Inventions and New Innovations Timeline for Kids (1945 - 1991)
Following WW2 was the period when many scientific advances were made in space exploration, weaponry, electronics, computers and medicine. The New Innovations  and inventions of the Cold War era can be seen in the short, New Innovations timeline for kids. Click the links for more comprehensive articles on the inventions and the inventors of the Cold War period (1945 - 1991).

1945: The WW2 Manhattan Project, under J. Robert Oppenheimer, produce the plutonium and uranium-235 necessary for nuclear fission which leads to US development of the Atomic Bomb.

1945: John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly developed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) to make military calculations.

1945: First vaccine developed for influenza

1946: US banker John C. Biggins of the Flatbush National Bank of Brooklyn invents the first bank-issued credit card

1946: F.C. Williams developed the cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device the forerunner to random-access memory (RAM)

1947: Alan Turing and Donald Watts Davies build the Pilot ACE digital computer

1947: Dr. Claude Beck invents the defibrillator

1947: The first manned supersonic flight where the sound barrier was broken was flown by US Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager in the Bell X-1.

1947: Douglas Engelbart theorized on interactive computing with keyboard and screen display instead of using punch cards

1947: US physicists Waler H. Brattain, John Bardeen and William Shockley invent the transistor at Bell Labs making it possible to miniaturize calculators and radios.

1948: Andrew Donald Booth invented magnetic drum memory

1948: American aeronautical engineer Francis Rogallo invented Rogallo's flexible wing, which was tested by NASA as a steerable parachute to retrieve Gemini space capsules

1948: Cable television was developed in Pennsylvania by John Walson and Margaret Walson.

1948: The first hand dryer was invented by George Clemens for use in public restrooms

1949: Howard Aiken develops the Harvard-MARK III at Harvard University for the U.S. Navy.

1949: Willard F. Libby invented the procedure for Radiocarbon dating

1949: The first atomic clock built at the United States National Bureau of Standards

1950: John Hopps invents the first cardiac pacemaker

1950: Paul Zoll develops the first cardiac pacemaker

1950: Hideo Yamachito creates the first electronic computer in Japan

1950: The teleprompter was invented by Hubert Schlafly

1950: Rosalind Franklin used X-ray diffraction to study the structure of DNA

1950: Jonas Salk developed the first polio vaccine

1951: The Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I) was the first commercial computer made in the United States and designed by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly

1951: LEO: the first UK business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) is developed by T. Raymond Thompson and John Simmons

1951: The wetsuit was invented by the University of California at Berkeley physicist Hugh Bradner.

1952: USA tests its first hydrogen bomb - the Mike Shot thermonuclear device

1952: Norman Joseph Woodland invented the barcode

1954: Gertrude Elion patents a drug to fight leukemia

1954: IBM and John Backus develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming Language

1954: Bryce K. Brown invented the radar gun to detect the speed of objects

1954: Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt invented the automatic sliding door

1954: Dr. Joseph E. Murray performed the first kidney transplant

1955: The first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus SSN 571 was developed

1955: Bell Labs introduced its first transistor computer.

1956: George Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger were the first to invent an industrial robot.

1957: USSR launch Sputnik I and Sputnik 2, the world's first artificial satellites

1957: The Cold War Space Race begins (1957 - 1975)

1957: USA tests its first intercontinental ballistic missile

1958: Dr. Roger Bacon invented the first high-performance carbon fibers

1958: ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) is formed

1958: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is formed

1958: The Silicon chip, the first integrated circuit, is produced in the US by the Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce

1959: Philo T. Farnsworth invented the fusor apparatus to create nuclear fusion.

1959: Paul Baran theorized on the "survivability of communication systems under nuclear attack"

1960: USA Corona Spy Satellite - successful recovery of photographs from space

1960: The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language is invented.

1960: American physicist Theodore H. Maiman created the first laser.

1960: Dr. Gregory Pincus invented the combined oral contraceptive pill (the Pill"

1960: The first Global navigation satellite system called Transit, was developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory under the leadership of Richard Kershner.

1961: Alan Shepherd became the first American, to travel into space on Freedom 7

1962: Nick Holonyak Jr. invented the first practical visible-spectrum LED

1962: American aerospace engineer John Robinson Pierce working at NASA launched Telstar, the world's first active communications satellite designed to transmit telephone and high-speed data communication

1963: ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange amongst computers

1963: The first computer mouse is invented by Douglas Engelbart

1963: The first computer mouse is invented by Douglas Engelbart

1962: The first computer game 'Spacewar Computer Game' was invented by Steve Russell at MIT

1962: USSR launches Zenit Spy Satellite, takes photographs above the USA

1964: John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)

1964: IBM introduces the first word processor

1964: The First vaccine is developed for measles.

1965: Paul C. Fisher invented the space pen which was tested at NASA, and was used during the Apollo 7 mission in 1968.

1965: Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson coin the term "hypertext"

1967: The first human heart transplant is conducted by Dr. Christiaan Barnard

1968: USA develops MIRV systems that put several warheads on a single launcher to strike widely dispersed targets

1968: USA launched the Apollo 8 Manned Moon Orbit

1969: USA places First Man on the Moon. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in Apollo 11 lunar module

1969: George Sweigert received a patent for the cordless telephone

1969: Seymour Cray developed the CDC 7600, the first supercomputer

1969: Gary Starkweather invented the laser printer working with Xerox

1969: Joe Sutter of The Boeing Company designed the world's first wide-body aircraft, the Boeing 747

1969: The U.S. Department of Defense established the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET ) creating a computer network that could withstand any type of disaster.  ARPANET created the first building blocks to the internet

1970: The first vaccine is developed for rubella

1970: Intel introduced the world's first available dynamic RAM (random-access memory) chip and the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor.

1971: Ray Tomlinson invented E-mail

1971: James Fergason invented Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

1971: The Floppy Disk, nicknamed the "Floppy" due to its flexibility, was invented by David Noble with IBM

1973: Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs create the Ethernet, a local-area network (LAN) protocol

1973: Martin Cooper invented the first handheld cellular mobile phone (cell phone).

1973: The minicomputer Xerox Alto became a landmark in the development of personal computers.

1973: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop gateway routing computers (Gateways) to negotiate between the various national networks

1973: The first voicemail system was invented by Stephen J. Boies.

1974: The First vaccine is developed for chicken pox

1974: IBM developed SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language ) known as SQL

1974: Charles Simonyi coins the phrase WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) to describe the ability to display a file or document exactly how it is going to be viewed or printed

1975: USA / USSR First multi-national manned missions ended the Cold War Space Race

1975: Engineer Steven Sasson working at Eastman Kodak invented the first digital camera using a CCD image sensor

1975: CAT-Scans are invented by Robert S. Ledley

1975: Bill Gates and Paul Allen found the Microsoft Corporation to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800

1975: Altair produces the first portable computer

1976: Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs found Apple Computers.

1977: Ward Christensen writes the "MODEM" program allowing two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a telephone line

1978: The First vaccine developed for meningitis

1978: The First test-tube baby was born

1981: The First vaccine is developed for hepatitis B

1983: Microsoft Windows are introduced to eliminate the need to type each command, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, tabs and icons

1983: HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is identified

1983: The Domain Name System (DNS) pioneered by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge

1983: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) - Star Wars

1985: The artificial kidney dialysis machine is invented by Willem J. Kolff

1990: Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau propose a 'hypertext' system starting the modern Internet and the World Wide Web

1991: The World Wide Web is launched on August 6, 1991

US American History
1945-1993: Cold War Era
Inventions in the 1920's
Industrial Revolution Inventions

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