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Hiroshima

Harry S Truman

Hiroshima: Harry S Truman was the 33rd American President who served in office from April 12, 1945, the day that President Franklin D. Roosevelt died, to January 20, 1953. One of the most important events during Truman's presidency was when the atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.

Definition and Summary of the Hiroshima
Summary and definition:
Hiroshima is a port in southwest Honshu, Japan, on the Inland Sea west of Osaka. The city was almost completely destroyed in WW2 when an American B29 bomber (The Enola Gay) dropped the first atomic bomb, "Little Boy", ever used in military warfare on August 6, 1945.

The devastation of Hiroshima failed to elicit immediate Japanese surrender and three days later on August 9, 1945 another B-29 bomber, Bockscar, dropped a second atomic bomb, "Fat Boy", on Nagasaki. On August 15, 1945 Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s surrender in a radio broadcast. The nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought World War 2 to an end.

When was Hiroshima bombed? Hiroshima was bombed at 08.15am on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb was called "Little Boy"

Where is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial? The Hiroshima Peace Memorial, aka the Atomic Bomb Dome, is located at the center of the city in the Peace Park. The park's main facility is the Peace Memorial Museum.

What was the death toll of Hiroshima? The death toll was horrendous. It is estimated that 265,000 people died due to the atomic bomb. 75,000 were killed immediately and the remainder from the effects of the radioactive fallout.

What was the Enola Gay? The Enola Gay was the name given to the a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, that dropped the atomic bomb "Little Boy" on the city of Hiroshima, Japan during WW2.

Facts about Hiroshima
The following fact sheet contains interesting facts and information on Hiroshima.

Hiroshima, a manufacturing center of with a population of 350,000 people, located about 500 miles from Tokyo, was selected as the target of the first Atomic Bomb.

During the First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895), Hiroshima emerged as a major supply and logistics base for the Japanese military, a role that Hiroshima continued to play during WW2

The Atomic Bomb was developed in less than 4 years by scientists, headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer, working on the top secret Manhattan Project in the United States.

Hiroshima was selected as the target for the first atomic bomb to be dropped on Japan because it was a large port city with a Japanese army base. Hiroshima had not been damaged much by previous bombings during WW2 and the destruction inflicted on the city would show the power of the new nuclear weapon.

The Enola Gay was the name given by the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, to the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber that dropped the atomic bomb, "Little Boy" on the city of Hiroshima.

The "Little Boy" atomic bomb was a gun-type fission weapon, using uranium rather than plutonium. The bomb was 10 feet (3.0 m) long and 28 inches (71 cm) wide.

The bomb was dropped at 08.15am on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The Atomic Bomb destroyed 76,000 buildings, about 63% of the city.

The effects of the explosion produced an intense light flash and a tremendous roar due to the shock wave of the explosion. A ball of fire rose rapidly, followed by a mushroom cloud that extended to the height of 40,000 feet (12,200 metres) above the city.

The terrifying effects and damage caused by the Atomic Bomb came from the explosive blast which crushed objects and produced high winds knocking objects down. The Atomic bomb explosion created radioactive air and the deadly material returned to the earth as radioactive fallout.

The city streets of Hiroshima  burned bright red, like live charcoal. Roof-tiles and granite stone buildings in Hisoshima melted due to the intense heat.

Firestorms led to rainfall in the form of "Black Rain" produced by fallout particles that were mixed with carbon residue from numerous city fires. Within 30-40 minutes of the bombings the deadly “Black rain” fell.

It is estimated that 265,000 people have died due to this atomic bomb, including its radioactive fallout. An estimated 75,000 people died instantly. The majority of victims died from burns (60%) and falling debris (30%)

When the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the heat of the blast from the atomic bomb was of such great intensity that it instantly vaporized the bodies of people but left their shadows. The permanently burned shadows of people and objects into the ground, were referred to as the "Hiroshima shadows".

The greatest number of deaths were those occurring immediately after the bombing.

The victims included Koreans who had been forced to work in Japan as laborers.

The victims also included American prisoners-of-war who were imprisoned in Hiroshima.

The intense heat of the explosion created numerous fires which burned for three days. The fires trapped and killed many of the survivors of the initial blast.

Radiation sickness destroys the cells in the body including blood cells, reproductive cells and hair cells.

165 people were believed to be victims of the bombings at both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tsutomu Yamaguchi survived both blasts. Tsutomu Yamaguchi was in Hiroshima on business when the city was bombed on August 6. He returned to Nagasaki the following day, and despite his wounds, returned to work on August 9, 1945 the day of the second atomic bombing. He eventually died on January 4, 2010, at the age of 93.

The fictional giant monster Godzilla was conceived as a metaphor for nuclear weapons. The monster spawned as a result of the nuclear detonations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had "atomic breath," unleashed from its jaws in the form of a red radioactive heat ray

The oleander is the official flower of the city because it was the first flower to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb.

Six Ginkgo biloba trees in the garden of a temple situated near the blast center survived the explosion. The temple was destroyed. The Ginkgo tress appeared to bud after the blast without major deformations and are still alive today. The Ginkgo tree is now regarded as the 'Bearer of Hope'.

After the nuclear attack, the city was rebuilt as a "peace memorial city". In 1949, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai

Every year on August 6, the day the bomb was dropped, thousands of people gather at Hiroshima Peace Memorial located in the Peace Park at the center of the city to join in interfaith religious services to commemorate the anniversary of the bombing.

The Japanese word 'Hibakusha' is the name given to the surviving victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The word 'Hibakusha' means "explosion-affected people" and is used to refer to people who were exposed to radiation from the bombings. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial contains lists of the names of the hibakusha who are known to have died since the bombing.

The Peace Flame is another monument, in the park near the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, that is dedicated to the victims of the atomic bomb that destroyed the city. The Peace Flame has burned continuously since it was lit in 1964, and will only be extinguished when all nuclear bombs in the world are destroyed and the planet is free from the threat of nuclear annihilation.

In 1994 the City of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games, also known as XII Asiad, officially opened by Emperor Akihito. The main theme of the 1994 games was to promote peace and harmony among Asian nations. 6,828 athletes and officials from 42 countries attended the events

US American History
1929-1945: Depression & WW2

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