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1919 Treaty of Versailles

Woodrow Wilson

1919 Treaty of Versailles: Woodrow Wilson was the 28th American President who served in office from March 4, 1913 to March 4, 1921. One of the important events during his presidency was the signing of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following WW1.

Definition and Summary of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles
Summary and definition:
WW1 or the  "Great War" officially ended the state of war between Germany and the Allies when the Treaty of Versailles was signed at the Palace of Versailles in France on June 28, 1919.

The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were extremely harsh towards Germany who had taken responsibility for the war. France, Britain and Italy wanted to take revenge and punish the Germans.

Wilson's Fourteen Points Plan was criticized for being to lenient towards Germany and were scuttled and by the other leaders of the Allies. The terms of Treaty of Versailles detailed territorial and military changes and addressed War-Guilt provisions that demanded massive amounts of money (Reparations) as compensation for the Great War. The terms of Treaty of Versailles did however create the League of Nations as suggested in President  Wilson's 14 Points.

Treaty of Versailles for kids: The Armistice
The WW1 Armistice between the Allies and Germany was the agreement that ended the fighting in the west of Europe on the Western Front. The armistice went into effect on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month on November 11, 1918. The armistice ended the actual fighting on the Western Front, but it took 6 months of negotiations at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference before the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were completed.

What was the 1919 Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles was signed at the Palace of Versailles in France on June 28, 1919. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles consisted of 440 Articles setting out the terms for Germany's punishment after they had taken responsibility for the Great War that had raged from 28 July, 1914 - 11 November, 1918.

Who signed the Treaty of Versailles?
There were many signers of the Treaty of Versailles, the most important being President Woodrow Wilson of the United State of America, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Georges Clemenceau of France.

The Effect of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany
The major effect of the Treaty of Versailles was to force Germany to give massive amounts of land to the Allies, force Germany to pay exorbitant amounts of reparation money to the Allies, and limit the size of the German army to a fraction of its former size.

Treaty of Versailles with Germany: Other Treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey
The Treaty of Versailles was not the only treaty following WW1. Four other treaties were made with the countries that had helped Germany during the war (Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey). The terms of these four additional treaties ran along the same lines as the Treaty of Versailles. The terms of the four treaties were that the defeated countries had to disarm, pay reparations and cede land as new countries were formed. The countries, names and dates of the treaties were as follows:

Austria: Treaty of Saint Germain (10 Sept 1919)

Hungary: Treaty of Trianon (4 June 1920)

Bulgaria: Treaty of Neuilly (27 Nov 1919)

Turkey: Treaty of Sèvres (10 Aug 1920)

The Major Provisions and Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
The Major provisions and Terms of the Treaty of Versailles detailed Military Changes, Territory Changes, War Guilt Provision (Financial Reparations) and the establishment of the League of Nations.

Terms of the Treaty of Versailles: Summary of Military Changes
The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles detailed the following Military Changes:

The terms limited the German army to 100,000 men.

Germany was not allowed heavy artillery or tanks.

Germany was not allowed to have an Airforce

The German navy was restricted to 15,000 with six battleships and no submarines were allowed.

The Rhineland was demilitarized, meaning the German army was allowed to go there

Terms of the Treaty of Versailles: Summary of Territory Changes
The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles detailed the following Territory Changes:

Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria

Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France

The Territory of the highly industrialized Saar Basin was to be occupied and governed by Britain and France for 15 years. The Saar coalfields were ceded to France for 15 years

The Germany was required to cede land to France, Belgium, Denmark, Czechoslovakia and Poland.

All of Germany's colonies were taken and given to Britain and France as 'Mandates'

Danzig was made a free city under the control of the League of Nations

US American History
1913-1928: WW1 & Prohibition

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