The Conservation Movement advocated the establishment of state and national and state parks, wildlife refuges and national monuments. President Theodore Roosevelt was a leader in the Conservation Movement fighting to end the waste of natural resources and conservation was a cornerstone of his domestic policy during his presidency.
Theodore Roosevelt and the Conservation Movement
"The conservation of our natural resources and their proper use
Conservation Movement for kids
"to substitute a planned and orderly development of our resources in place of a haphazard striving for immediate profit."
Conservation Movement for kids: Environmentalism vs Conservation
Conservation Movement History for kids: The End of the Wilderness
He expressed the view that when the unlimited free land in the frontier and wilderness was available it had given Americans the psychological sense of unlimited opportunity. The vast American wilderness had been explored, settled, and exploited and members of the Conservation Movement believed the nation's natural optimism and drive would disappear along with its natural resources and indigenous population. The Conservation Movement promoted the idea that the remaining unspoiled lands had to be preserved for future generations.
Conservation Movement History for kids: Famous Conservationists - Caitlin, Thoreau and Muir
George Caitlin not only witnessed at first hand the decline of a civilization he also saw the near extinction of the buffalo, killed in their thousands for sport and entertainment. The writer and conservationist, Henry David Thoreau (1817 – 1862), believed that "all good things are wild and free" and his beliefs led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the first national park in the world.
The writer, naturalist and preservationist John Muir (1838 – 1914) witnessed the wanton logging of giant redwoods in California and the damage caused by excessive grazing of sheep, which he called "hoofed locusts". Muir urged protection of the Yosemite Valley and Congress responded by creating Yosemite National Park and Sequoia National Park. John Muir founded the 'Sierra Club which became a prominent American conservation organization. The frightening examples of destruction in the nation's recent history and the publications of early conservationists were significant to the rise of the reformists in the Progressive Era and the Conservation Movement.
Conservation Movement History: The Progressive Era
Conservation Movement History for kids: No State or Government Control
Conservation Movement History for kids: Industries and the "Tradition of Waste"
Conservation Movement in America for kids: Threats to the Environment
Conservation Movement in America: Accomplishments of the Conservationists and President Roosevelt
Conservation Movement Timeline for kids: History and timeline of the Progressive Movement
1841: George Caitlin published Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians
1851: Henry David Thoreau delivers an address in Massachusetts declaring that "in Wildness is the preservation of the World."
1872: Yellowstone National Park is created by an Act of Congress
1887: The Boone and Crockett Club is founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell. Its goal is to stem the loss of the nation’s natural resources and to conserve wildlife habitat
1890: Congress passes legislation establishing Sequoia National Parkand Yosemite and General Grant National Parks
1890: The start of the Progressive Era and increasing support for the Conservation Movement
1891: Congress passes the Forest Reserve Act that grants the President the authority to establish forest reserves on public lands by proclamation
1892: John Muir founds the Sierra Club that is dedicated to the preservation of wilderness.
1893: Frederick Jackson Turner publishes "The Significance of the Frontier in American History."
1898: Gifford Pinchot is appointed chief of the Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture
1899: The Harriman Alaska Expedition explores coastal Alaska undertaken by Americans involved in conservationism
1900: The Lacey Act becomes the first Federal law protecting game
1901: Theodore Roosevelt becomes president and champions the Conservationists. In his First Annual Message he announces his goals of forest conservation and preservation
1902: Congress passes a bill establishing Crater Lake National Park, Oregon.
1902: Congress passes the Alaska Game Act protecting animals in Alaska
1903: The first Federal Bird Reservation is established on Pelican Island, Florida
1903: Congress passes a bill establishing Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota.
1904: The Square Deal Policy in which President Roosevelt supports progressive and aggressive political reforms, including the heavy regulation of business as well as supporting the Conservation Movement.
1904 Congress passes a bill which leads to the establishment of Sullys Hill National Park, North Dakota.
1905 The American Bison Society is organized
1905: The American Forest Congress in Washington is attended by government leaders and members of the Conservation Movement who raise issues relating to natural resources to leaders of lumbering, mining, grazing, and irrigation industries
1906: Congress passes the Game and Bird Preserves Protection Act
1906: The National Monuments Act ( Antiquities Act) is passed authorizing the President to establish national monuments for the preservation of historic, prehistoric, and scientific interest
1906: President Roosevelt issues a Presidential Proclamation establishing Devil's Tower National Monument, Wyoming, as the nation's first National Monument
1906: Congress passes by a law establishing Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, and Platt National Park, Oklahoma
1906: Congress passes by "An Act For the control and regulation of the waters of Niagara River, for the preservation of Niagara Falls, and for other purposes"
1907: Proclamation issued establishing Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument, California
1908: The National Conservation Commission is established
1908: Muir Woods National Monument, California is established
1909: The First National Conservation Congress is convened by the Washington State Conservation Association
1909: Congress passes "An Act To create the Calaveras Bigtree National Forest"
1909: President Roosevelt issues a Proclamation establishing Mount Olympus National Monument, Washington.
1909: The presidency of Theodore Roosevelt comes to an end on March 4, 1909. He becomes known as the "Father of Conservation".
1933: The idea and creation of the highly acclaimed Civilian Conservation Corps by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression, originated from FDR’s experiences with the ideals of the Conservation Movement and his involvement with the Boy Scouts
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